Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-07-22 Origin: Site
The application prospect of plastics in the automotive industry is also promising. At present, the plastic consumption of many cars in the world has exceeded 120 kg / vehicle, and that of individual models is even higher. The plastic consumption of German Mercedes Benz luxury cars has reached 150 kg / vehicle. The plastic consumption of some domestic cars has also reached 90 kg / vehicle. It can be predicted that with the acceleration of automobile lightweight process, plastics will be more widely used in automobiles. Automobile lightweight makes plastic widely used as raw materials in the field of auto parts. From interior parts to exterior parts and structural parts, plastic parts can be seen everywhere. At present, developed countries have regarded the amount of plastic used in automobiles as an important symbol to measure the level of automobile design and manufacturing. From the materials used in modern automobiles, plastic parts can be seen everywhere, whether they are external decorative parts, internal decorative parts, or functional and structural parts.
The development of plastic automobile industry is closely related to the development of plastic industry. In recent years, automobile lightweight has become an effective measure to reduce automobile emissions and improve combustion efficiency, and it is also the main direction of the development of automobile materials. It makes the consumption of plastics in automobiles rise rapidly. At present, developed countries have taken the amount of plastic used in automobiles as an important symbol to measure the level of automobile design and manufacturing.
Statistics show that every 1% reduction in the weight of general automobile components can save 1% fuel; Every 1% reduction of moving parts can save oil by 2%. Compared with the past, the quality of foreign cars has been reduced by 20% - 26%. It is expected that the weight of the car will continue to be reduced by 20% in the next 10 years. The development and application of lightweight materials such as plastics play an important role in the lightweight process of automobiles.
The biggest advantage of using plastics in automobile materials is to reduce the weight of the car body. Generally, the specific gravity of plastics is 0.9-1.5, and the specific gravity of fiber reinforced composites will not exceed 2.0, while the specific gravity of metal materials is 7.6 for A3 steel, 8.4 for brass, and 2.7 for aluminum. This makes plastic materials the first choice for automobile lightweight. From the materials used in modern cars, we can see the shadow of plastic parts everywhere, whether it is external decorative parts, internal decorative parts, or functional and structural parts. The application characteristics of the external decorative parts are "replacing steel with plastic", reducing the self weight of the car. The main components are bumper, fender, wheelhouse, deflector, etc; The main components of the interior trim include instrument panel, door inner panel, auxiliary instrument panel, glove box cover, seat, rear guard board, etc; The functions and structural parts mainly include oil tank, radiator water chamber, air filter cover, fan blade, etc.
The light weight of automobiles has rapidly enlarged the market of plastic materials, including polypropylene, polyurethane, polyvinyl chloride, thermosetting composites, ABS, nylon and polyethylene. In the past two years, polypropylene, the largest variety of automotive plastics, has accelerated its growth at a rate of 2.2% - 2.8% every year. It is estimated that by 2020, the average plastic consumption of automobiles in developed countries will reach more than 500 kg / vehicle.
At present, the interior parts of foreign cars have basically been plastic, and the application range of plastic in cars is expanding from interior parts to exterior parts, body and structural parts. The key development direction in the future is to develop reinforced plastic composites, high-performance resin materials and plastics for structural parts and external fittings, and pay high attention to the recyclability of materials. Statistics show that the average plastic consumption per vehicle in the world reached 105 kg in 2000, accounting for about 8% - 12% of the total weight of vehicles. In developed countries, the average use of single vehicle plastic is 120 kg, accounting for 12% - 20% of the total vehicle weight. For example, the total weight of plastic parts of Audi A2 car has reached 220 kg, accounting for 24.6% of the total materials. At present, automotive plastics in developed countries have accounted for 7% - 8% of the total consumption of plastics, and it is expected to reach 10% - 11% soon.
For China, the application of plastics in the automotive industry is still in its infancy. At present, the application of non-metallic materials such as plastics in domestic cars is not as good as that of imported cars. In Europe, the weight of automotive plastics accounts for 20% of the self weight of cars. On average, nearly 300 kg of plastics are used per German car, accounting for 22% of the total weight of cars. Compared with foreign countries, the consumption of non-metallic materials for domestic cars is still relatively small. The average amount of plastic used in domestic cars is 78 kg, accounting for only 5-10% of the self weight of the car.